JSON Streaming

JSON streaming are communications protocols to delimit JSON objects built upon lower-level stream-oriented protocols (such as TCP), that ensures individual JSON objects are recognized

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, when the server and clients use the same one (e.g. implicitly coded in).

JSON is a popular format for exchanging object data between systems. Frequently there’s a need for a stream of objects to be sent over a single connection, such as a stock ticker or application log records

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. In these cases there’s a need to identify where one JSON encoded object ends and the next begins. Technically this is known as framing.

There are two common ways to achieve this:

Line delimited JSON streaming makes use of the fact that the JSON format does not allow newline characters within values (they have to be escaped as `\n`) and that most JSON formatters default to not including any whitespace, including newlines. These features allows the newline characters to be used as a delimiter.

This example shows two JSON objects (the implicit newline characters at the end of each line are not shown):

The use of a newline as a delimiter enables this format to work very well with traditional line-oriented UNIX tools.

Concatenated JSON streaming allows the sender to simply write each JSON object into the stream with no delimiters. It relies on the receiver using a streaming parser to recognize and emit each JSON object as the terminating character is parsed. Concatenated JSON isn’t a new format, it’s simply a name for streaming multiple JSON objects without any delimiters.

The advantage of this format is that it can handle JSON objects that have been formatted with embedded newline characters, e.g., pretty-printed for human readability. For example, these two inputs are both valid and produce the same output:

Implementations that rely on line-based input may require a newline character after each JSON object in order for the object to be emitted by the parser in a timely manner. (Otherwise the line may remain in the input buffer without being passed to the parser.) This is rarely recognised as an issue because terminating JSON objects with a newline character is very common.

Line delimited JSON works very well with traditional line-oriented tools.

Concatenated JSON works with pretty-printed JSON but requires more effort and complexity to parse. It doesn’t work well with traditional line-oriented tools. Concatenated JSON streaming is a superset of line delimited JSON streaming.

Line delimited JSON can be read by a parser that can handle concatenated JSON. Concatenated JSON that contains newlines within a JSON object can’t be read by a line delimited JSON parser.

The terms “line delimited JSON” and “newline delimited JSON” are often used without clarifying if embedded newlines are supported.

There’s also a format known as NDJ (“Newline delimited JSON”) which allows comments to be embedded if the first two characters of a given line are “//”. This can’t be used with standard JSON parsers if comments are included.

Concatenated JSON can be converted into Line delimited JSON by a suitable JSON utility such as . For example

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Claude François Alexandre Houtteville

Claude François Alexandre Houtteville (1686 à Paris – 9 novembre 1742 à Paris) est un homme d’Église et écrivain religieux français.

Oratorien et prêtre, il enseigne l’histoire ecclésiastique à Tours avant de devenir secrétaire du cardinal Dubois. En 1722

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, il est élu membre de l’Académie française, dont il sera secrétaire perpétuel en 1742.

Partisan de Malebranche et farouche adversaire de Spinoza, il dénonce dans sa Religion chrétienne prouvée par les faits la tolérance religieuse qui se répand en France à la mort de Louis XIV et qui selon lui ne peut mener qu’à l’impiété et l’athéisme. Paru en 1722, cet ouvrage est vivement critiqué, à tel point que Houtteville en donnera en 1740 une nouvelle version fortement remaniée. Il continue néanmoins à y dénoncer la tolérance et les dangers qui adviennent quand « on laisse chacun arbitre de ses opinions particulières et libre de se composer à son gré sa propre religion ». Voltaire à son tour dénoncera ses propos en parlant de la tolérance « que l’abbé Houtteville appelle dogme monstrueux

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, dans sa déclamation ampoulée et erronée sur des faits, et que la raison appelle l’apanage de la nature. »

Claude François Houtteville est également l’auteur d’un Essai philosophique sur la Providence, paru en 1728.

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Emanuele di Mensdorff-Pouilly

Emmanuel von Mensdorff-Pouilly (Nancy, 24 gennaio 1777 – Vienna, 28 giugno 1852) è stato un generale austriaco Heart Dangle Bracelet. Fu Feldmaresciallo Luogotenente, Vice-Governatore della fortezza di confederazione germanica di Magonza e cittadino onorario della medesima città dal 1834.

Mensdorff-Pouilly discendeva da una famiglia lorenese ed aveva qui ottenuto la Baronia di Pouilly e Stenay, territori sulle rive della Mosa. La linea di Dietrichstein si estinse nel 1864 anche se la linea continuò a perpetrarsi per successione femminile. Albert Louis de Pouilly (1731 -1795) con la moglie, Marie Antoinette de Custine (1746-1800), emigrarono assieme ai loro figli allo scoppio della rivoluzione francese (1790). Suoi figli furono Alberto (1775-1799 morto in Italia nel corso delle guerre napoleoniche) ed Emanuele (1777-1852) accettarono il cognome Mensdorff (derivato da un loro possedimento nella Contea di Roussy in Lussemburgo).

Nel 1818, Emanuele ricevette il titolo comitale nell’ambito dell’impero austriaco, assieme al motto Fortitudine et caritate.

Dopo una gloriosa carriera militare che lo portò sino al grado di Luogotenente Feldmaresciallo, divenne secondo Vicepresidente dell’Imperial-Regio Consiglio aulico di Guerra. Successivamente si ritirò a vita privata dove si dedicò alla poesia e alla musica, di cui era grande intenditore: di lui ci rimane una raccolta di serenate che dedicò alla moglie Sofia

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.

Si spense il 28 giugno 1852 e gli succedette nei titoli il figlio Alessandro di Mensdorff, anch’egli alto ufficiale austriaco

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Emanuele si sposò con Sofia di Sassonia-Coburgo-Saalfeld, figlia del duca Francesco Federico di Sassonia-Coburgo-Saalfeld e della sua seconda moglie la principessa Augusta di Reuss-Ebersdorf, dalla quale ebbe i seguenti eredi:

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; margin: 0″>Altri progetti

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